NASA GODDARD HOMEPAGE FOR TROPOSPHERIC OZONE

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

Code 614, Chemistry and Dynamics Branch



MAIN MENU

  • TROPOSPHERIC OZONE DATA AND IMAGES FROM AURA OMI/MLS
  • OZONE ENSO INDEX (OEI) TIME SERIES DATA
  • OTHER PUBLIC DOMAIN DATA AND IMAGES, ETC.
  • PUBLICATIONS
  • CONTACT PERSON
  • GO TO NASA GODDARD CHEMISTRY AND DYNAMICS BRANCH (CODE 614) HOMEPAGE
  • GO TO NASA HOMEPAGE
  • TREND ANALYSIS SOFTWARE, ETC.




  • TROPOSPHERIC OZONE DATA AND IMAGES FROM AURA OMI/MLS

    As members of the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) science team we are developing several tropospheric ozone data products from OMI in combination with Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). One of these involves OMI measurements alone to derive tropospheric and stratospheric ozone. By combining OMI total column ozone measurements with MLS stratospheric column ozone measurements, we are producing global maps of OMI/MLS tropospheric ozone. Aura MLS stratospheric ozone data were provided in collaboration with the Aura MLS team at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA.


    NOTES:

    (1) The tropospheric ozone on this webpage from combined Aura OMI and
    MLS is an experimental science research data product and is not a
    standard data product. All tropospheric ozone data and images
    involving OMI/MLS residual measurements are considered preliminary,
    and development of these data products is ongoing work. Please
    revisit this website periodically for updates to images and data.

    (2) Below is the journal reference for the OMI/MLS tropospheric
    ozone data:

    Ziemke, J. R., S. Chandra, B. N. Duncan, L. Froidevaux, P. K. Bhartia,
    P. F. Levelt, and J. W. Waters,
    "Tropospheric ozone determined from Aura OMI and MLS: Evaluation
    of measurements and comparison with the Global Modeling Initiative's
    Chemical Transport Model"
    , J. Geophys. Res., 111, D19303,
    doi:10.1029/2006JD007089, 2006.


    The following provide links to data and images involving Aura OMI/MLS tropospheric ozone data from Goddard Code 614. A new product has now been added, a trajectory-mapped ozone dataset by Mark Schoeberl. The original monthly mean clear-sky measurements [Ziemke et al., 2006] are still being provided and updated - the original products will eventually be phased out and replaced with the trajectory-mapped products alone. Please address the Curator Jerry Ziemke (jerald.r.ziemke@nasa.gov) involving problems or specific comments about the datasets.

    * * * OMI/MLS TRAJECTORY-MAPPED TROPOSPHERIC OZONE * * *

    * * * OMI/MLS MONTHLY CLEAR-SKY TROPOSPHERIC OZONE (ORIGINAL PRODUCT) * * *

    * * * Tropospheric ozone images from Aura OMI tropical Cloud Slicing (+ other Aura images) * * *

    * * * Tropospheric ozone movies from Aura OMI tropical Cloud Slicing (+ other Aura, etc. movies) * * *


    MAPS OF MONTHLY-MEAN TROPOSPHERIC
    COLUMN OZONE FROM OMI/MLS RESIDUAL
    MEASUREMENTS:

    October 2004, November 2004, December 2004, January 2005, February 2005,
    March 2005, April 2005, May 2005, June 2005, July 2005,
    August 2005, September 2005, October 2005, November 2005, December 2005,
    January 2006, February 2006, March 2006, April 2006, May 2006,
    June 2006, July 2006, August 2006, September 2006, October 2006,
    November 2006, December 2006, January 2007, February 2007, March 2007,
    April 2007, May 2007, June 2007, July 2007, August 2007,
    September 2007, October 2007, November 2007, December 2007, January 2008,
    February 2008, March 2008, April 2008, May 2008, June 2008,
    July 2008, August 2008, September 2008, October 2008, November 2008, December 2008,
    January 2009, February 2009, March 2009, April 2009, May 2009, June 2009,
    July 2009, August 2009, September 2009, October 2009, November 2009, December 2009,
    January 2010, February 2010, March 2010, April 2010, May 2010, June 2010,
    July 2010, August 2010, September 2010, October 2010, November 2010, December 2010,
    January 2011, February 2011, March 2011, April 2011, May 2011, June 2011,
    July 2011, August 2011, September 2011, October 2011, November 2011, December 2011,
    January 2012, February 2012, March 2012, April 2012, May 2012, June 2012,
    July 2012, August 2012, September 2012, October 2012, November 2012, December 2012,
    January 2013, February 2013, March 2013, April 2013, May 2013 June 2013,
    July 2013, August 2013, September 2013 October 2013 November 2013 December 2013
    January 2014, February 2014, March 2014, April 2014, May 2014 June 2014,
    July 2014, August 2014, September 2014

    MAPS OF MONTHLY-AVERAGED TROPOSPHERIC
    MEAN VOLUME MIXING RATIO FROM OMI/MLS RESIDUAL
    MEASUREMENTS:

    October 2004, November 2004, December 2004, January 2005, February 2005,
    March 2005, April 2005, May 2005, June 2005, July 2005,
    August 2005, September 2005, October 2005, November 2005, December 2005,
    January 2006, February 2006, March 2006, April 2006, May 2006,
    June 2006, July 2006, August 2006, September 2006, October 2006,
    November 2006, December 2006, January 2007, February 2007, March 2007,
    April 2007, May 2007, June 2007, July 2007, August 2007,
    September 2007, October 2007, November 2007, December 2007, January 2008,
    February 2008, March 2008, April 2008, May 2008, June 2008,
    July 2008, August 2008, September 2008, October 2008, November 2008, December 2008,
    January 2009, February 2009, March 2009, April 2009, May 2009, June 2009,
    July 2009, August 2009, September 2009, October 2009, November 2009, December 2009,
    January 2010, February 2010, March 2010, April 2010, May 2010, June 2010,
    July 2010, August 2010, September 2010, October 2010, November 2010, December 2010,
    January 2011, February 2011, March 2011, April 2011, May 2011, June 2011,
    July 2011, August 2011, September 2011, October 2011, November 2011, December 2011,
    January 2012, February 2012, March 2012, April 2012, May 2012, June 2012,
    July 2012, August 2012, September 2012, October 2012, November 2012, December 2012,
    January 2013, February 2013, March 2013, April 2013, May 2013 June 2013,
    July 2013, August 2013, September 2013 October 2013 November 2013 December 2013
    January 2014, February 2014, March 2014, April 2014, May 2014 June 2014,
    July 2014, August 2014, September 2014

    MONTHLY MEAN CLIMATOLOGY MAPS OF TROPOSPHERIC COLUMN OZONE,
    STRATOSPHERIC COLUMN OZONE, AND NCEP TROPOPAUSE PRESSURE (WMO
    2K/km LAPSE RATE definition):

    Click here (PDF file) for color contour figures and information for obtaining
    a 12-month climatology of OMI/MLS high resolution (1 degree latitude
    by 1.25 degree longitude) tropospheric ozone, stratospheric ozone,
    total column ozone, and surface UV-Index.

    Click here (PowerPoint file) for color contour figures and information for obtaining
    a 12-month climatology of OMI/MLS high resolution (1 degree latitude
    by 1.25 degree longitude) tropospheric ozone, stratospheric ozone,
    total column ozone, and surface UV-Index.

    (1) Tropospheric column ozone (in Dobson Units)
    (2) Stratospheric column ozone (in Dobson Units)
    (3) NCEP Tropopause pressure (in hPa)

    Note: The above climatolgy of ozone and tropopause pressure was
    derived from OMI/MLS residual measurements and NCEP analyses,
    respectively. The time record for this monthly climatology
    is October 2004 through December 2010. Shown here are
    maps at 5 degree latitude by 5 degree longitude resolution.

    GIVEN BELOW ARE ASCII DATA TABLES FOR THE ABOVE CLIMATOLOGY
    MAPS (INCLUDED ARE ADDITIONAL TABLES FOR LOCAL TEMPORAL RMS
    FIELDS AND SURFACE PRESSURE)

    Horizontal resolution of 5 degrees latitude by 5 degrees longitude:
    (1) Tropospheric column ozone climatology (in Dobson Units) at
    5 degree latitude by 5 degree longitude resolution

    (2) Stratospheric column ozone climatology (in Dobson Units) at
    5 degree latitude by 5 degree longitude resolution

    (3) NCEP tropopause pressure climatology (in hPa) at
    5 degree latitude by 5 degree longitude resolution

    (4) Tropospheric column ozone RMS climatology (in Dobson Units) at
    5 degree latitude by 5 degree longitude resolution

    (5) Stratospheric column ozone RMS climatology (in Dobson Units) at
    5 degree latitude by 5 degree longitude resolution

    (6) NCEP tropopause pressure RMS climatology (in hPa) at
    5 degree latitude by 5 degree longitude resolution

    (7) Surface/terrain pressure climatology (in hPa) at
    5 degree latitude by 5 degree longitude resolution

    Horizontal resolution of 10 degrees latitude by 10 degrees longitude:
    (8) Tropospheric column ozone climatology (in Dobson Units) at
    10 degree latitude by 10 degree longitude resolution

    (9) Stratospheric column ozone climatology (in Dobson Units) at
    10 degree latitude by 10 degree longitude resolution

    (10) NCEP tropopause pressure climatology (in hPa) at
    10 degree latitude by 10 degree longitude resolution

    (11) Tropospheric column ozone RMS climatology (in Dobson Units) at
    10 degree latitude by 10 degree longitude resolution

    (12) Stratospheric column ozone RMS climatology (in Dobson Units) at
    10 degree latitude by 10 degree longitude resolution

    (13) NCEP tropopause pressure RMS climatology (in hPa) at
    10 degree latitude by 10 degree longitude resolution

    (14) Surface/terrain pressure climatology (in hPa) at
    10 degree latitude by 10 degree longitude resolution

    Note: The above ozone and tropopause pressure climatology data
    were derived from OMI/MLS residual measurements and NCEP
    analyses, respectively. The time record for this monthly climatology
    is October 2004 through December 2010. Tables are given
    for both 5 degree by 5 degree and 10 degree by 10 degree
    horizontal resolution. The 12 columns of numbers in these
    files for ozone and tropopause pressure correspond to the
    months January, February, ..., December

    Note: Below are IDL readers for reading any of the above ozone
    and tropopause pressure data tables:

    (1) IDL reader for the ozone tables at 5 degree latitude by
    5 degree longitude horizontal resolution

    (2) IDL reader for the ozone tables at 10 degree latitude by
    10 degree longitude horizontal resolution

    REFERENCE FOR ABOVE CLIMATOLOGY MAPS AND DATA:
    Ziemke, J. R., S. Chandra, G. Labow, et al.,
    "A global climatology of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone
    derived from Aura OMI and MLS measurements"
    , Atmos. Chem. Phys.
    11, 9237-9251, doi:10.5194/acp-11-9237-2011, 2011.



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    OZONE ENSO INDEX (OEI) MONTHLY TIME SERIES DATA

    We have combined column ozone measured in tropical latitudes from Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS), Earth Probe TOMS, solar backscatter ultraviolet (SBUV), and Aura ozone monitoring instrument (OMI) to derive an El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index. This index, which covers a time period from 1979 to near present, is defined as the tropospheric "Ozone ENSO Index" (OEI) [Ziemke et al., 2010, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2010.]

    Stratospheric column ozone in tropical low latitudes has very small longitudinal variation of only a few Dobson Units. This has been shown in previous studies from SAGE, HALOE, and UARS/Aura MLS stratospheric ozone satellite measurements. Because of this characteristic, the east-west zonal variation of tropospheric column ozone in tropical low latitudes is essentially identical to that of total column ozone. This property of near zero zonal variation of stratospheric column ozone is used to derive the tropospheric OEI.

    The OEI is calculated by differencing total column ozone between two broad regions in the the western and eastern tropical Pacific. Because of near zero zonal variation of stratospheric ozone, this differencing eliminates the stratospheric ozone signal leaving only tropospheric ozone variation in the OEI.

    There are many ENSO indices that have been developed. One commonly used ENSO index derived from sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies is the NOAA Nino 3.4 index. Another historic ENSO index comes from Tahiti minus Darwin surface pressure. Both ENSO indices are well correlated with tropospheric and total column ozone with an east-west "dipole" signature between the eastern and western Pacific in the tropics. (See IMAGE of temporal correlation between total column ozone and the ENSO indices Nino 3.4 and Tahiti minus Darwin pressure (denoted SOI in figure)). On average, a +1K change in Nino 3.4 index coincides with about a +2.5 to +3 DU change in OEI depending on the amount of cloud scenes included in calculation of the OEI. The more convective cloud scenes included in calculating the OEI, the smaller becomes the OEI sensitivity number with the Nino 3.4 ENSO index. This is likely because ozone concentrations in the lower troposphere in the remote Pacific are characteristically low and convective clouds inject these low concentrations into the middle and upper troposphere, reducing tropospheric column ozone and the calculated OEI.

    The OEI is a useful diagnostic test for ocean-atmosphere climate models of the troposphere [e.g., Oman et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 2011]. Such models should be capable of reproducing signatures of the ozone ENSO index including it's sensitivity relationship with ENSO induced changes in tropical surface pressure and sea surface temperature.

    The OEI is updated periodically on this webpage. Listed below is the OEI monthly-mean data, and a figure of these two OEI time series versus the Nino 3.4 sea-surface temperature ENSO index.

    Below is the OEI data calculated using only clear-sky scenes
    for the satellite ozone measurements:
    (1) OEI (clear-sky condition) DATA for January 1979 (top) through December 2013 (bottom).

    Below is a JPEG figure which shows the above OEI time series
    plotted with the Nino 3.4 ENSO index:
    IMAGE of the OEI and Nino 3.4 ENSO indices (Note: Nino 3.4
    time series was multiplied by +3 for scaling with the OEI time series)


    Below is the reference paper for the ozone ENSO index:

    Ziemke, J. R., S. Chandra, L. D. Oman, and P. K. Bhartia,
    "A new ENSO index derived from satellite measurements of column
    ozone"
    , Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 3711-3721, 2010.



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    OTHER PUBLIC DOMAIN DATA AND IMAGES, ETC. :

    Monthly-mean maps (GIF images) of tropical tropospheric column ozone (in Dobson Units) derived from the Convective Cloud Differential (CCD) method [Ziemke et al., 1998]:

    1979 1980 1981 1982 1983
    1984 1985 1986 1987 1988
    1989 1990 1991 1992 1993
    1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
    1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
    2004 2005

    GRIDDED TROPICAL DATA:

    Data for the above tropospheric column ozone images can be obtained at this website. The data (see DATA DOCUMENTATION ) represent monthly-means with a resolution of 5 degrees latitude by 5 degrees longitude and are printed in ASCII format for both TROPOSPHERIC and STRATOSPHERIC column measurements. Stratospheric column ozone to within a few Dobson Units in the tropics is zonally homogeneous. For this reason the stratospheric column ozone data file gives only one value for each latitude. There is also an IDL PROCEDURE provided to read these data tables. At current time these CCD data files are developed from Nimbus 7 TOMS and Earth Probe TOMS version 8 measurements. In the future, the new Aura OMI CCD data will be appended to continue this long time-record data set.

    PACIFIC AVERAGED DATA FOR 50S TO 60N:

    Pacific averaged (120W-120E) monthly mean stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone from TOMS measurements covering the latitudes 50S to 60N (5 degree latitude bands) can be obtained here. The tabulated data were obtain using the CCD method. Measurements for latitudes south of 50S and north of 60N are not included in the tables because there are not enough suitable clouds for using the CCD method. As with the above data tables, TOMS version 8 level-2 footprint measurements were used to construct the data. There are two ASCII tables, one for STRATOSPHERIC column ozone and one for TROPOSPHERIC column ozone. Time coverage extends from January 1979 through December 2005. Two-sigma uncertainties in these monthly measurements of both stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone are 5 DU. There is an IDL PROCEDURE provided to read these data tables. Note that in the tables the two left-most numbers designate latitude ranges (maximum and minimum) for the measurements. It is noted that the stratospheric column ozone measurements outside the tropics from Earth Probe TOMS began having problems in mid-2001. Stratospheric ozone began showing an erroneous downward trend and a signature of a solar zenith angle dependent calibration drift. Stratospheric data for years 2001-2005 are lower than they should be, so that the variabilities in the measurements should be evaluated with caution. Tropospheric ozone is not affected directly by calibration drift (it's a differencing method) and maintains reasonable numbers through year 2005.

    SPECIAL NOTES:

    All of the above data tables were determined from Nimbus 7 TOMS (Jan79-Apr93) and Earth Probe TOMS (Aug96-Dec05) satellite measurements. Following December 2005, Earth Probe TOMS no longer provides data. In the future, the new Aura OMI ozone measurements will be used to continue adding to these long time records of stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone.

    Below is the primary journal reference for the CCD data and methodology:

    Ziemke, J. R., S. Chandra, and P. K. Bhartia,
    "Two new methods for deriving tropospheric column ozone from TOMS
    measurements: The assimilated UARS MLS/HALOE and convective-cloud
    differential techniques"
    , J. Geophys. Res., 103, 22,115-22,127, 1998.

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    REFEREED PUBLICATIONS ON TROPOSPHERIC OZONE
    FROM MEMBERS OF OUR RESEARCH GROUP (NOTE: IF YOU
    WISH TO HAVE A COPY OF ANY OF THESE PAPERS PLEASE SEND
    A REQUEST TO THE CONTACT PERSON LISTED AT THE BOTTOM
    OF THIS WEBPAGE):

    Ziemke, J. R., M. A. Olsen, J. C. Witte, A. R. Douglass,
    S. E. Strahan, K. Wargan, X. Liu, M. R. Schoeber, K Yang,
    T. B. Kaplan, S. Pawson, B. N. Duncan, P. A. Newman,
    P. K. Bhartia , M. K. Heney,
    "Assessment and applications of NASA ozone data products derived
    from Aura OMI/MLS satellite measurements in context of the GMI
    Chemical Transport Model",
    J. Geophys. Res., in press, 2014.

    Oman, L. D., A. R. Douglass, J. R. Ziemke, J. M. Rodriguez,
    D. W. Waugh,and J. E. Nielson,
    "The ozone response to ENSO in Aura satellite measurments
    and a chemistry-climate simulation"
    , J. Geophys. Res.,
    118, 965976, doi:10.1029/2012JD018546, 2013.

    Ziemke, J. R., and S. Chandra,
    "Development of a climate record of tropospheric and stratospheric
    ozone from satellite remote sensing: Evidence of an early recovery
    of global stratospheric ozone"
    , Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 5737-5753,
    doi:10.5194/acp-12-5737-2012, 2012.

    Yuan, T., L. A. Remer, H. Bian, J. R. Ziemke, R. Albrecht, et al.,
    "Aerosol indirect effect on tropospheric ozone via cloud lightning",
    J. Geophys. Res., 117, D18213, doi:10.1029/2012JD017723, 2012.

    Oman, L. D., J. R. Ziemke, A. R. Douglass, D. W. Waugh, C. Lang,
    J. M. Rodriguez, and J. E. Nielsen,
    "The response of tropical tropospheric ozone to ENSO",
    Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L13706, doi:10.1029/2011GL047865, 2011.

    Ziemke, J. R., S. Chandra, G. Labow, P. K. Bhartia, L. Froidevaux,
    and J. C. Witte,
    "A global climatology of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone
    derived from Aura OMI and MLS measurements"
    ,
    Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 9237-9251, doi:10.5194/acp-11-9237-2011, 2011.

    Ziemke, J. R., S. Chandra, L. D. Oman, and P. K. Bhartia,
    "A new ENSO index derived from satellite measurements of column
    ozone"
    , Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 3711-3721, 2010.

    Oman, L. D., D. A., Plummer, D. W. Waugh, et al.,
    "Multi-model assessment of the factors driving stratospheric ozone
    evolution over the 21st century"
    , J. Geophys. Res., 115,
    D24306, doi:10.1029/2010JD014362, 2010.

    Kar, J., J. Fishman, J. K. Creilson, J. R. Ziemke, and S. Chandra,
    "Are there urban signatures in the tropospheric ozone column products
    derived from satellite measurements?"
    , Atmos. Chem. Phys.,
    10, 5213-5222, doi:10.5194/acp-10-5213-2010, 2010.

    Avery, M., C. Twohy, D. McCabe, et al.,
    "Convective distribution of tropospheric ozone and tracers in the
    Central American ITCZ region: Evidence from observations during
    TC4"
    , J. Geophys. Res., 115, doi:10.1029/2009JD013450, 2010.

    Chandra, S., J. R. Ziemke, B. N. Duncan, T. L. Diehl,
    N. J. Livesey, and L. Froidevaux,
    "Effects of the 2006 El Nino on tropospheric ozone and carbon
    monoxide: Implications for dynamics and biomass burning",

    Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 4239-4249, 2009.

    Ziemke, J. R., J. Joiner, S. Chandra, P. K. Bhartia, A. Vasilkov,
    D. P. Haffner, K. Yang, M. R. Schoeberl, L. Froidevaux and P. F. Levelt,
    "Ozone mixing ratios inside tropical deep convective clouds from
    OMI satellite measurements"
    , Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 573-583, 2009.

    Ziemke, J. R., S. Chandra, B. N. Duncan, M. R. Schoeberl, O. Torres,
    M. R. Damon, and P. K. Bhartia
    "Recent biomass burning in the tropics and related changes
    in tropospheric ozone"
    , Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L15819,
    doi:10.1029/2009GL039303, 2009.

    Duncan, B. N., J. J. West, Y. Yoshida, A. M. Fiore, and J. R. Ziemke,
    "The influence of European pollution on ozone in the Near East
    and northern Africa"
    , Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 2267-2283, 2008.

    Fishman, J., K. W. Bowman, J. P. Burrows, et al.,
    "Remote sensing of chemically reactive tropospheric trace gases
    from space"
    , Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 805-821, June 2008.

    Schoeberl, M. R., J. R. Ziemke, B. Bojkov, N. Livesey, B. N. Duncan, et al.,
    "A trajectory-based estimate of the tropospheric ozone column using
    the residual method"
    , J. Geophys. Res., 112, D24S49,
    doi:10.1029/2007JD008773, 2007.

    Martin, R. V., B. Sauvage, I. Folkins, C. E. Sioris, C. Boone,
    P. Bernath, and J. R. Ziemke
    "Space-based constraints on the production of nitric oxide by
    lightning"
    , J. Geophys. Res., 112 (D9), D09309, 2007.

    Sauvage, B., R. V. Martin, A. van Donkelaar, and J. R. Ziemke,
    "Quantification of the factors controlling tropical tropospheric
    ozone and the South Atlantic maximum"
    , J. Geophys. Res.,
    112 (D11) D11309, 2007.

    Ziemke, J. R., S, Chandra, S., M. R. Schoeberl, L. Froidevaux,
    W. G. Read, P. F. Levelt, and P. K. Bhartia,
    "Intra-seasonal variability in tropospheric ozone and water vapor in
    the tropics"
    , Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L17804,
    doi:10.1029/2007GL030965, 2007.

    Chandra, S., J. R. Ziemke, M. R. Schoeberl, L. Froidevaux, W. G. Read,
    P. F. Levelt, and P. K. Bhartia,
    "Effects of the 2004 El Nino on tropospheric ozone and water vapor",
    Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L06802, doi:10.1029/2006GL028779, 2007.

    Ziemke, J. R., S. Chandra, B. N. Duncan, L. Froidevaux, P. K. Bhartia,
    P. F. Levelt, and J. W. Waters,
    "Tropospheric ozone determined from Aura OMI and MLS: Evaluation
    of measurements and comparison with the Global Modeling Initiative's
    Chemical Transport Model"
    , J. Geophys. Res., 111, D19303,
    doi:10.1029/2006JD007089, 2006.

    Tie, X., S. Chandra, J. R. Ziemke, C. Granier, and G. P. Brasseur,
    "Satellite measurements of tropospheric column O3 and NO2 in eastern
    and southeastern Asia: Comparison with a global model (MOZART-2)"
    ,
    J. Atmos. Chem.", doi:10.1007/s10874-006-9045-7, 2006.

    Ziemke, J. R., S. Chandra, and P. K. Bhartia,
    "A 25-year data record of atmospheric ozone in the Pacific from TOMS
    Cloud Slicing: Implications for ozone trends in the stratosphere and
    troposphere"
    , J. Geophys. Res., 110, D15105, doi:10.1029/2004JD005687, 2005.

    Chandra, S., J. R. Ziemke, X. Tie, and G. Brasseur,
    "Elevated ozone in the troposphere over the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
    in the northern hemisphere"
    , Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L23102,
    doi:10.1029/2004GL020821, 2004.

    Ziemke, J. R., and S. Chandra,
    "A Madden-Julian Oscillation in tropospheric ozone", Geophys. Res.
    Lett., 30(23), 2182, doi:10.1029/2003GL018523, 2003.

    Ahn, C., J. R. Ziemke, S. Chandra, and P. K. Bhartia,
    "Derivation of tropospheric column ozone from EPTOMS/GOES co-located
    data sets using the Cloud Slicing technique"
    , J. Atmos. Solar Terr.
    Phys., 65(10), 1127-1137, 2003.

    Ziemke J. R., S. Chandra, and P. K. Bhartia,
    "Upper tropospheric ozone derived from the Cloud Slicing technique:
    Implications for large-scale convection"
    , J. Geophys. Res., 108(D13),
    4390, doi:10.1029/2002JD002919, 2003.

    Chandra, S., J. R. Ziemke, and R. V. Martin,
    "Tropospheric ozone at tropical and middle latitudes derived from
    TOMS/MLS residual: Comparison with a global model"
    , J. Geophys. Res.,
    108(D9), 4291, doi:10.1029/2002JD002912, 2003.

    Ziemke, J. R., and S. Chandra,
    "La Nina and El Nino induced variabilities of ozone in the tropical
    lower atmosphere during 1970-2001"
    , Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(3), 1142,
    doi:10.1029/2002GL016387, 2003.

    Chandra, S., J. R. Ziemke, P. K. Bhartia, and R. V. Martin,
    "Tropical tropospheric ozone: Implications for dynamics and biomass
    burning"
    , J. Geophys. Res., 107(D14), doi:10.1029/2001JD00044, 2002.

    Ziemke, J. R., S. Chandra, and P. K. Bhartia,
    "Cloud slicing: A new technique to derive upper tropospheric ozone
    from satellite measurements"
    , J. Geophys. Res., 106, 9853-9867, 2001.

    Martin, R. V., D. J. Jacob, J. A. Logan, J. R. Ziemke, and R. Washington,
    "Detection of lightning influence on tropical tropospheric ozone using
    empirical orthogonal functions"
    , Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 1639-1642, 2000.

    Ziemke, J. R., S. Chandra, and P. K. Bhartia,
    "A new NASA data product: Tropospheric and stratospheric column ozone
    in the tropics derived from TOMS measurements"
    , Bull. Amer. Meteorol.
    Soc., 81, 580-583, 2000.

    Ziemke, J. R., and S. Chandra,
    "Seasonal and interannual variabilities in tropical tropospheric ozone" ,
    J. Geophys. Res., 104, 21,425-21,442, 1999.

    Chandra S., J. R. Ziemke, and R. W. Stewart,
    "An 11-year solar-cycle in tropospheric ozone from TOMS measurements" ,
    Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 185-188, 1999.

    Ziemke, J. R., S. Chandra, and P. K. Bhartia,
    "Two new methods for deriving tropospheric column ozone from TOMS
    measurements: The assimilated UARS MLS/HALOE and convective-cloud
    differential techniques"
    , J. Geophys. Res., 103, 22,115-22,127, 1998.

    Ziemke, J. R., and S. Chandra,
    "On tropospheric ozone and the tropical wave 1 in total ozone", in Atmospheric
    ozone, Vol. 1, edited by R. D. Bojkov and G. Visconti, pp. 447-450, 1998.

    Chandra, S., J. R. Ziemke, W. Min, and W. G. Read,
    "Effects of 1997-1998 El Nino on tropospheric ozone and water vapor" ,
    Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 3867-3870, 1998.

    Ziemke, J. R., and S. Chandra,
    "Comment on 'Tropospheric ozone derived from TOMS/SBUV measurements
    during TRACE A' by J. Fishman et al."
    , J. Geophys. Res., 103,
    13,903-13,906, 1998.

    Ziemke, J. R., S. Chandra, A. M. Thompson, and D. P. McNamara,
    "Zonal asymmetries in southern hemisphere column ozone: Implications of
    biomass burning"
    , J. Geophys. Res., 101, 14,421-14,427, 1996.

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    TREND ANALYSIS SOFTWARE, ETC.:

    MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION SOURCE CODES FOR TREND ANALYSIS AND GENERAL SCIENCE APPLICATIONS (both Fortran and IDL software - includes example programs). The trend analysis codes originate from Ziemke et al. [1997]:

    Ziemke, J. R., S. Chandra, R. D. McPeters, and P. Newman,
    Dynamical proxies of column ozone with applications to global
    trend models
    , J. Geophys. Res., 102, 6117-6129, 1997.

    (If you use the regression trend routine(s) for published work, you may if you want list this paper as the reference to these trend programs.) Ziemke et al. [1997] used a Monte Carlo statistical approach. The multi-variate statistics built into the trend code can be turned off and replaced by a Monte Carlo method by adding random noise to the independent proxies.

    FORTRAN CODE for solving general N X N linear system problems (i.e.,solves AX=B using Gauss-Jordan method).

    FORTRAN CODE for numerically solving ordinary differential equations (coupled Runge-Kutta method). This program shows one example of a 3rd-order ODE and prints the results to an ASCII table which can be plotted using an IDL PLOTTING PROGRAM. The IDL program generates a postscript IMAGE.

    FORTRAN CODE for Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis of data.

    FORTRAN CODE for Fast Fourier Transform analysis of data. The first step of Fourier analysis is to determine prime number factorization of the time series length (Here is a FORTRAN CODE for providing prime number factorization). Here is also a FORTRAN CODE for listing prime numbers.

    FORTRAN CODE for the exact solution (i.e., angles, distances, times, orbital speeds) to the general two-body gravitational problem with two arbitrary masses.

    FORTRAN CODE for determining the locations and stability of the five Lagrangian points for the generalized three-body problem with two large masses and one infinitesimally small mass.

    Short glossary of commonly-used terms in Atmospheric Science (all pages are GIF IMAGES): PAGE1, PAGE2, PAGE3, PAGE4, PAGE5, PAGE6.

    SHORT GLOSSARY (text file) of commonly-used terms in Atmospheric Science from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

    FIGURE (GIF IMAGE): What is a Dobson Unit (DU)?

    FIGURE (GIF IMAGE): How is Column Ozone Computed?

    SPACE TIME HARMONIC DECOMPOSITION (GIF IMAGE) for data with one temporal and one spatial (longitude) variable.

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    CONTACT PERSON:

    Dr. Jerry R. Ziemke
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
    Code 614, Chemistry and Dynamics Branch
    Greenbelt, Maryland, 20771
    Office phone: 301-614-6034
    Office Fax: 301-614-5903
    Email: jerald.r.ziemke@nasa.gov
    Current Affiliation: Morgan State University, Baltimore, Maryland

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    NASA HOME GSFC HOME Web Curator: Dr. Jerry R. Ziemke (NASA GSFC Code 614 and Morgan St. Univ. GESTAR)
    Responsible NASA official: Dr. P. K. Bhartia, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch, NASA GSFC Code 614